Who we are

C2H is a department of a national institute of public health (NIPH), established in 2018 for academic research on cost-effectiveness evaluation, and public roles of the official evaluation process.
In Japan, where public healthcare expenditure has been increasing, we evaluate the balance between the cost and outcome of healthcare technologies. We also provide data and materials for evidence-based health policy (EBPH). The goal is to make the public healthcare system more sustainable.

For “cost effectiveness evaluation” of medicines and medical devices

Normally, you are required to pay part of the expenses for the treatment (only 30% of total expenses in many cases) at medical institutions. Who will bear the remaining 70% of the expenses? The answer is: They are paid from the insurance premium and tax. Thus, individual patients pay only a part of the healthcare expenses and the remainder is paid from our public money.

As of 2018, the annual healthcare expenditure in Japan is about JPY 42 trillion, and this amount has been increasing year after year. Factors underlying such an increase include aging and development of new treatment such as medicines and medical devices. For example, imagine the launch of a new expensive medicine. Indeed, the medicine may alleviate the symptoms of the disease, but if the expenses for many patients are paid from the insurance premium and tax, it will affect the public healthcare expenditure.

Now discussions on “healthcare balanced well between cost and outcome”, which means “cost-effective healthcare”, are needed. Resources available for healthcare is limited. We believe that evaluation of such efficiency will make the current public healthcare more “sustainable.”

Many of you may feel that the methods for cost-effectiveness evaluation are too complicated and difficult to understand well. This website of C2H will provide information useful for you to gain a better understanding. Healthcare is indispensable for many people. Let us think about our healthcare system together.

Why does C2H evaluate cost-effectiveness?

C2H, i.e. “Center for Outcomes Research and Economic Evaluation for Health,” was founded in April 2018. It is a department of the National Institute of Public Health. The policy of introducing cost-effectiveness evaluation of medicines and medical devices was decided in June 2015 by the Cabinet. After being introduced on a trial basis in 2016, formal system started in 2019 at last.

Medicines and medical devices involve various stakeholders, including the manufactures, healthcare professionals, the patients, insurers and the general citizens. Because of this nature, cost-effectiveness evaluation of medicines and medical devices requires analysis from a public standpoint, independent of specific groups. We believe that C2H is capable of conducting scientifically rigid, fair and transparent analyses.

Value supplied to you from C2H

To: experts in “cost effectiveness evaluation”

C2H will supply diverse information which may be useful to you experts when conducting cost-effectiveness evaluation for research. For example, we provide you with guidelines of standard method employed during the processes at the Central Social Insurance Medical Council (Chuikyo). The results of such evaluation, and the tools for use developed by C2H are also provided.

To: manufacturer of medicines and medical devices

C2H is aimed at providing definite processes and analytical methods for cost-effectiveness evaluation to manufacturers, possessing products requiring cost- effectiveness evaluation or products which could require such evaluation in the future. We will help such manufacturer to conduct more scientifically appropriate analyses while maintaining communications over the analyses.

To: citizens and healthcare professionals

C2H will provide the results of cost-effectiveness evaluation concerning the medicines and medical devices specified by the MHLW as products requiring such evaluation. We shall additionally attempt to provide easily understandable explanations about the evaluation methods. C2H is a public and academic organization that performs the scientific analysis during the process of cost-effectiveness evaluation.

Organization name and logo mark

Logo Mark

Organization name

C2H is an abbreviation for “CORE 2 Health” derived from the formal name in English, namely, “Center for Outcomes Research and Economic Evaluation for Health (保健医療経済評価研究センター).” The “2” of C2H originates from two Es used for “Economic Evaluation.” C2H is in charge of public analysis of medicines and medical devices. On the other hand, because research, training, etc., also covers prophylactic and other diverse technologies, the Japanese name of our organization includes the word meaning “public health (保健),” in addition to the word meaning “healthcare (医療).”

Logo mark

The logo of C2H, composed of letters linked by a line, creates the impression of a chemical formula which can be imagined from medicines. The simple design based on “line” represents “linkage” to various stakeholders. Furthermore, because we are members of national research institute in charge of cost-effectiveness evaluation, a coloring based on black and white is adopted to express “flat relationship” and “reliability.”